IFN-γ-inducible protein 10 (IP-10, CXCL10) is a 10 kDa chemokine secreted from cells stimulated with type I and II interferons (IFNs) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). IP- 10 is constitutively expressed at low levels in thymic, splenic, and lymph node stroma. Expression of IP-10 is seen in many Th1-type human inflammatory diseases, including skin diseases (e.g., psoriasis), multiple sclerosis, atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, transplant rejection, and inflammatory bowel disease. Elevated levels of IP-10 protein have been found in the cerebral spinal fluid in patients with viral meningitis and multiple sclerosis. In these diseases, levels of IP-10 correlate with the tissue infiltration of T lymphocytes, suggesting that IP-10 plays an important role in the recruitment of T cells to sites of tissue inflammation. Serum levels of IP-10 in patients with chronic persistent hepatitis C have been known to be elevated compared with those in normal volunteers, and levels were further significantly higher in patients with the active form (chronic active hepatitis (CAH)). In patients cured by IFN therapy, IP-10 levels have been shown to decrease, while the serum levels in patients who were not cured remain unchanged after IFN therapy.