TAU, S100B AND NSE As Blood Biomarkers In Acute Cerebrovascular Events
Onatsu J, Vanninen R, JÄkÄlÄ P, Mustonen P, Pulkki K, Korhonen M, Hedman M, HÖglund K, Blennow K, Zetterberg H, Herukka SK and Taina M.
InVivo Sep-Oct 2020;34(5):2577-2586
Background/aim: We aimed to analyze the diagnostic value of total tau (T-tau), S-100 calcium-binding protein B (S100B) and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) as blood-based biomarkers in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) or transient ischemic attack (TIA), and their correlation with symptom severity, infarct size, etiology and outcome.
Patients and methods: A total of 102 patients with stroke and 35 with TIA were analyzed. Subacute (63.8±50.1 h) plasma T-tau was measured with the single-molecule array (Simoa) method and NSE and S100B were evaluated for comparison. We evaluated biomarkers associations with: (i) diagnosis of AIS or TIA, (ii) cerebral infarction volume in the brain computed tomography, (iii) stroke etiology, (iv) clinical stroke severity and (iv) functional outcome after three months.
Results: T-tau was higher in patients with stroke [1.0 pg/ml (IQR=0.3-2.2)] than with TIA [0.5 pg/ml (IQR=0.2-1.0), p=0.02]. The levels of S100B were also increased in stroke [0.082 μg/l (IQR=0.049-0.157)] patients compared to TIA patients [0.045 μg/l (IQR=0.03-0.073), p<0.001]. However, when the results were adjusted for confounders, significance was lost. Serum levels of NSE among patients with AIS [11.85 μg/l (IQR=9.30-16.14)] compared to those with TIA [10.96 μg/l (IQR=7.98-15.33), p=0.30] were equal. T-tau and S100B concentrations significantly correlated with cerebral infarction volume (r=0.412, p<0.001) and (r=0.597, p<0.001), also after corrections (p<0.001). mRS scores at three-month follow-up correlated with T-tau (r=0.248, p=0.016) and S100B concentrations (r=0.205, p=0.045).
Conclusion: For the diagnosis of TIA vs. AIS, blood T-tau and S100B concentrations discriminated only modestly. Additionally, groups were not separable after measuring of T-tau and S100B levels in the blood. T-tau and S100B concentrations correlated with the infarct size, but were not alone predictive for functional outcome at 3 months.
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