Serum Neurofilament Light Chain Is A Discriminative Biomarker Between Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration And Primary Psychiatric Disorders
JOURNAL OF NEUROLOGY. 2019
Katisko K, Cajanus A, Jaaskelainen O, Kontkanen A, Hartikainen P, Korhonen VE, Helisalmi S, Haapasalo A, Koivumaa-Honkanen H, Herukka SK, Remes AM and Solje E.
Stroke. 2019 Sep 20:STROKEAHA119026410. doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.119.026410.
Background and Purpose- Ischemic stroke causes major disability as a consequence of neuronal loss and recurrent ischemic events. Biomarkers predicting tissue damage or stroke recurrence might be useful to guide an individualized stroke therapy. NfL (neurofilament light chain) is a promising biomarker that might be used for this purpose. Methods- We used individual data of patients with an acute ischemic stroke and clinical long term follow-up. Serum NfL (sNfL) was quantified within 24 hours after admission and after 1 year and compared with other biomarkers (GDF15 [growth differentiation factor 15], S100, NT-proBNP [N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide], ANP [atrial natriuretic peptide], and FABP [fatty acid-binding protein]). The primary end point was functional outcome after 90 days and cerebrovascular events and death (combined cardiovascular end point) within 36 months of follow-up. Results- Two hundred eleven patients (mean age, 68.7 years; SD, ±12.6; 41.2% women) with median clinical severity on the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score of 3 (interquartile range, 1-5) and long-term follow-up with a median of 41.8 months (interquartile range, 40.0-44.5) were prospectively included. We observed a significant correlation between sNfL and NIHSS at hospital admission (r=0.234; P<0.001). sNfL levels increased with the grade of age-related white matter changes (P<0.001) and were able to predict unfavorable clinical outcome (modified Rankin Scale score, ≥2) 90 days after stroke (odds ratio [OR], 1.562; 95% CI, 1.003-2.433; P=0.048) together with NIHSS (OR, 1.303; 95% CI, 1.164-1.458; P<0.001) and age-related white matter change rating (severe; OR, 3.326; 95% CI, 1.186-9.326; P=0.022). Similarly, sNfL was valuable for the prediction of the combined cardiovascular end point (OR, 2.002; 95% CI, 1.213-3.302; P=0.007), besides NIHSS (OR, 1.110; 95% CI, 1.000-1.232; P=0.049), diabetes mellitus (OR, 2.942; 95% CI, 1.306-6.630; P=0.005), and age-related white matter change rating (severe; OR, 4.816; 95% CI, 1.206-19.229; P=0.026) after multivariate regression analysis. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed significantly more combined cardiovascular end points (18 [14.1%] versus 38 [45.8%], log-rank test P<0.001) during long-term follow-up in patients with elevated sNfL levels. Conclusions- sNFL is a valuable biomarker for functional independence 90 days after ischemic stroke and predicts cardiovascular long-term outcome. Clinical Trial Registration- URL: http://www.isrctn.com. Unique identifier: ISRCTN 46104198.