Publications & Posters

Guidance for use of neurofilament light chain as a cerebrospinal fluid and blood biomarker in multiple sclerosis management

EBioMedicine | February 13, 2024

Freedman MS, Gnanapavan S, Booth RA, Calabresi PA, Khalil M, Kuhle J, Lycke J, Olsson T; Consortium of Multiple Sclerosis Centers.

EBioMedicine. 2024


Neurofilament light chain (NfL) is a long-awaited blood biomarker that can provide clinically useful information about prognosis and therapeutic efficacy in multiple sclerosis (MS). There is now substantial evidence for this biomarker to be used alongside magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and clinical measures of disease progression as a decision-making tool for the management of patients with MS. Serum NfL (sNfL) has certain advantages over traditional measures of MS disease progression such as MRI because it is relatively noninvasive, inexpensive, and can be repeated frequently to monitor activity and treatment efficacy. sNfL levels can be monitored regularly in patients with MS to determine change from baseline and predict subclinical disease activity, relapse risk, and the development of gadolinium-enhancing (Gd+) lesions. sNfL does not replace MRI, which provides information related to spatial localisation and lesion stage. Laboratory platforms are starting to be made available for clinical application of sNfL in several countries. Further work is needed to resolve issues around comparisons across testing platforms (absolute values) and normalisation (reference ranges) in order to guide interpretation of the results.