Publications & Posters

Diagnostic performance of Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein and Prehospital Stroke Scale for identification of stroke and stroke subtypes in an unselected patient cohort with symptom onset < 4.5 h

Scandanavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation, and Emergency Medicine | January 5, 2023

Henriette S. Jæger, Ditte Tranberg, Karianne Larsen, Jan B. Valentin, Rolf A. Blauenfeldt, Sebastian Luger, Kristi G. Bache & Martin F. Gude

Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med 31, 1 (2023)

This study was performed using the Quanterix HD-1 Analyzer.



Rapid identification and treatment of stroke is crucial for the outcome of the patient. We aimed to determine the performance of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) independently and in combination with the Prehospital Stroke Score (PreSS) for identification and differentiation of acute stroke within 4.5 h after symptom onset.

Patients and methods

Clinical data and serum samples were collected from the Treat-Norwegian Acute Stroke Prehospital Project (Treat-NASPP). Patients with suspected stroke and symptoms lasting ≤ 4.5 h had blood samples collected and were evaluated with the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale prospectively. In this sub study, NIHSS was retrospectively translated into PreSS and GFAP was measured using the sensitive single molecule array (SIMOA).


A total of 299 patients with suspected stroke were recruited from Treat-NASPP and included in this study (44% acute ischemic stroke (AIS), 10% intracranial hemorrhage (ICrH), 7% transient ischemic attack (TIA), and 38% stroke mimics). ICrH was identified with a cross-fold validated area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.73 (95% CI 0.62–0.84). A decision tree with PreSS and GFAP combined, first identified patients with a low probability of stroke. Subsequently, GFAP detected patients with ICrH with a 25.0% sensitivity (95% CI 11.5–43.4) and 100.0% specificity (95% CI 98.6–100.0). Lastly, patients with large-vessel occlusion (LVO) were detected with a 55.6% sensitivity (95% CI 35.3–74.5) and 82.4% specificity (95% CI 77.3–86.7).


In unselected patients with suspected stroke, GFAP alone identified ICrH. Combined in a decision tree, GFAP and PreSS identified subgroups with high proportions of stroke mimics, ICrH, LVO, and AIS (non-LVO strokes).