Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP) is a class-III intermediate filament majorly expressed in astrocytic glial cells in the central nervous system. Astrocytes play a variety of key roles in supporting, guiding, nurturing, and signaling neuronal architecture and activity. Monomeric GFAP is about 55kD. It is capable of forming both homodimers and heterodimers; GFAP can polymerize with other type III proteins or with neurofilament protein (such as NF-L). GFAP is involved in many important CNS processes, including cell communication and the functioning of the blood brain barrier. GFAP, as a potential biomarker has been shown to associate with multiple diseases such as traumatic brain injury, stroke, brain tumors, etc. Decreases in GFAP expression have been reported in Down’s syndrome, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and depression.

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