A trial of gantenerumab or solanezumab in dominantly inherited Alzheimer’s disease
Nature Medicine | June 21, 2021
Salloway S, Farlow M, McDade E, Clifford DB, Wang G, Llibre-Guerra JJ, Hitchcock JM, Mills SL, Santacruz AM, Aschenbrenner AJ, Hassenstab J, Benzinger TLS, Gordon BA, Fagan AM, Coalier KA, Cruchaga C, Goate AA, Perrin RJ, Xiong C, Li Y, Morris JC, Snider BJ, Mummery C, Surti GM, Hannequin D, Wallon D, Berman SB, Lah JJ, Jimenez-Velazquez IZ, Roberson ED, van Dyck CH, Honig LS, Sánchez-Valle R, Brooks WS, Gauthier S, Galasko DR, Masters CL, Brosch JR, Hsiung GR, Jayadev S, Formaglio M, Masellis M, Clarnette R, Pariente J, Dubois B, Pasquier F, Jack CR, Jr., Koeppe R, Snyder PJ, Aisen PS, Thomas RG, Berry SM, Wendelberger BA, Andersen SW, Holdridge KC, Mintun MA, Yaari R, Sims JR, Baudler M, Delmar P, Doody RS, Fontoura P, Giacobino C, Kerchner GA and Bateman RJ
Nature medicine. 2021
Dominantly inherited Alzheimer’s disease (DIAD) causes predictable biological changes decades before the onset of clinical symptoms, enabling testing of interventions in the asymptomatic and symptomatic stages to delay or slow disease progression. We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled, multi-arm trial of gantenerumab or solanezumab in participants with DIAD across asymptomatic and symptomatic disease stages. Mutation carriers were assigned 3:1 to either drug or placebo and received treatment for 4–7 years. The primary outcome was a cognitive end point; secondary outcomes included clinical, cognitive, imaging and fluid biomarker measures. Fifty-two participants carrying a mutation were assigned to receive gantenerumab, 52 solanezumab and 40 placebo. Both drugs engaged their Aβ targets but neither demonstrated a beneficial effect on cognitive measures compared to controls. The solanezumab-treated group showed a greater cognitive decline on some measures and did not show benefits on downstream biomarkers. Gantenerumab significantly reduced amyloid plaques, cerebrospinal fluid total tau, and phospho-tau181 and attenuated increases of neurofilament light chain. Amyloid-related imaging abnormalities edema was observed in 19.2% (3 out of 11 were mildly symptomatic) of the gantenerumab group, 2.5% of the placebo group and 0% of the solanezumab group. Gantenerumab and solanezumab did not slow cognitive decline in symptomatic DIAD. The asymptomatic groups showed no cognitive decline; symptomatic participants had declined before reaching the target doses.
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