CHEMOKINE PANEL (IP-10, ITAC, MCP-1, MIP-3B)
IFN-γ-inducible protein 10 (IP-10, CXCL10) is a 10 kDa chemokine secreted from cells stimulated with type I and II interferons (IFNs) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). IP- 10 is constitutively expressed at low levels in thymic, splenic, and lymph node stroma. Expression of IP-10 is seen in many Th1-type human inflammatory diseases, including skin diseases (e.g., psoriasis), multiple sclerosis, atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, transplant rejection, and inflammatory bowel disease. Elevated levels of IP-10 protein have been found in the cerebral spinal fluid in patients with viral meningitis and multiple sclerosis. In these diseases, levels of IP-10 correlate with the tissue infiltration of T lymphocytes, suggesting that IP-10 plays an important role in the recruitment of T cells to sites of tissue inflammation. Serum levels of IP-10 in patients with chronic persistent hepatitis C have been known to be elevated compared with those in normal volunteers, and levels were further significantly higher in patients with the active form (chronic active hepatitis (CAH)). In patients cured by IFN therapy, IP-10 levels have been shown to decrease, while the serum levels in patients who were not cured remain unchanged after IFN therapy.
Interferon-inducible T-cell alpha chemoattractant (ITAC), also known as CXCL11 (C-X-C motif chemokine 11), is a protein found in several organs including the pancreas, liver, thymus, spleen, and lung. ITAC is a cytokine stimulated by IFNβ and IFNγ to induce chemotaxis in activated T cells. ITAC has been linked with heart failure and central nervous system diseases.
Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, also called chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2, CCL2) is a chemokine that recruits monocytes, memory T cells, and dendritic cells to the sites of inflammation produced by either tissue injury or infection. MCP-1 is implicated in pathogeneses of several diseases characterized by monocytic infiltrates, such as psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis and atherosclerosis. MCP-1 is also involved in the neuroinflammatory processes in various CNS diseases characterized by neuronal degeneration, including Alzheimer’s disease and traumatic brain injury.
MIP-3β (macrophage inflammatory protein-3-beta ), also known as (Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 19 (CCL19) and EBI1 ligand chemokine (ELC) is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family. It is expressed at high levels in the lymph nodes, thymus and appendix, and elicits its effects on its target cells by binding to the chemokine receptor chemokine receptor CCR7. MIP-3β and plays a role not only in inflammatory and immunological responses but also in normal lymphocyte recirculation, migration and homing.