Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, also called chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2, CCL2) is a chemokine that recruits monocytes, memory T cells, and dendritic cells to the sites of inflammation produced by either tissue injury or infection. MCP-1 is implicated in pathogeneses of several diseases characterized by monocytic infiltrates, such as psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis and atherosclerosis. MCP-1 is also involved in the neuroinflammatory processes in various CNS diseases characterized by neuronal degeneration, including Alzheimer’s disease and traumatic brain injury.


Macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2), also known as CXCL2, GRO-β, GRO-2, MIP-2α, and SCYB2, is a cytokine secreted by macrophages, monocytes, and epithelial cells in response to cell injury. MIP-2 is a chemoattractant, recruiting neutrophils to the site of injury and mediating inflammatory response. MIP-2 plays a role in melanoma, multiple sclerosis, and inflammation of the lungs and liver.

MIP-3A (Macrophage Inflammatory Protein-3), also known as CCL20, or liver activation regulated chemokine (LARC) is a cytokine strongly chemotactic for lymphocytes, and highly expressed in peripheral blood lymphocytes, lymph nodes, liver, appendix, and fetal lung. It has been used as a cancer biomarker, and increasing experimental evidence suggests a critical role for MIP-3A in autoimmune pathogenesis of the central nervous system.