A dynamic COVID-19 immune signature includes associations with poor prognosis

Nature Medicine
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Laing AG, Lorenc A, Del Molino Del Barrio I, Das A, Fish M, Monin L, Muñoz-Ruiz M, McKenzie DR, Hayday TS, Francos-Quijorna I, Kamdar S, Joseph M, Davies D, Davis R, Jennings A, Zlatareva I, Vantourout P, Wu Y, Sofra V, Cano F, Greco M, Theodoridis E, Freedman J, Gee S, Chan JNE, Ryan S, Bugallo-Blanco E, Peterson P, Kisand K, Haljasmägi L, Chadli L, Moingeon P, Martinez L, Merrick B, Bisnauthsing K, Brooks K, Ibrahim MAA, Mason J, Lopez Gomez F, Babalola K, Abdul-Jawad S, Cason J, Mant C, Seow J, Graham C, Doores KJ, Di Rosa F, Edgeworth J, Shankar-Hari M and Hayday AC.

Nat Med (2020).

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41591-020-1038-6

Abstract

Improved understanding and management of COVID-19, a potentially life-threatening disease, could greatly reduce the threat posed by its etiologic agent, SARS-CoV-2. Toward this end, we have identified a core peripheral blood immune signature across 63 hospital-treated patients with COVID-19 who were otherwise highly heterogeneous. The signature includes discrete changes in B and myelomonocytic cell composition, profoundly altered T cell phenotypes, selective cytokine/chemokine upregulation and SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies. Some signature traits identify links with other settings of immunoprotection and immunopathology; others, including basophil and plasmacytoid dendritic cell depletion, correlate strongly with disease severity; while a third set of traits, including a triad of IP-10, interleukin-10 and interleukin-6, anticipate subsequent clinical progression. Hence, contingent upon independent validation in other COVID-19 cohorts, individual traits within this signature may collectively and individually guide treatment options; offer insights into COVID-19 pathogenesis; and aid early, risk-based patient stratification that is particularly beneficial in phasic diseases such as COVID-19.

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