Differential Expression of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-A165 Isoforms Between Intracranial Atherosclerosis and Moyamoya Disease

Journal of stroke and cerebrovascular diseases
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Jiang H, Toscano JF, Schiraldi M, Song SS, Schlick KH, Dumitrascu OM, Liou R, Lyden PD, Pan J, Zhan R, Saver JL and Gonzalez NR

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2019 Feb;28(2):360-368

DOI: 10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2018.10.004

 

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND:
ascular endothelial growth factor-A165 (VEGF-A165) has been identified as a combination of 2 alternative splice variants: proangiogenic VEGF-A165a and antiangiogenic VEGF-A165b. Intracranial atherosclerotic disease (ICAD) and moyamoya disease (MMD) are 2 main types of intracranial arterial steno-occlusive disorders with distinct capacities for collateral formation. Recent studies indicate that VEGF-A165 regulates collateral growth in ischemia. Therefore, we investigated if there is a distinctive composition of VEGF-A165 isoforms in ICAD and MMD.

METHODS:
Sixty-six ICAD patients, 6 MMD patients, and 5 controls were enrolled in this prospective study. ICAD and MMD patients received intensive medical management upon enrollment. Surgery was offered to 9 ICAD patients who had recurrent ischemic events, 6 MMD patients, and 5 surgical controls without ICAD. VEGF-A165a and VEGF-A165b plasma levels were measured at baseline, within 1 week after patients having surgery, and at 1, 3, and 6 months after treatment.

RESULTS:
A significantly higher baseline VEGF-A165a/b ratio was observed in MMD compared to ICAD (P = .016). The VEGF-A165a/b ratio increased significantly and rapidly after surgical treatment in ICAD (P = .026) more so than in MMD and surgical controls. In patients with ICAD receiving intensive medical management, there was also an elevation of the VEGF-A165a/b ratio, but at a slower rate, reaching the peak at 3 months after initiation of treatment (baseline versus 3 months VEGF-A165a/b ratio, P = .028).

CONCLUSIONS:
Our study shows an increased VEGF-A165a/b ratio in MMD compared to ICAD, and suggests that both intensive medical management and surgical revascularization elevate the VEGF-A165a/b ratio in ICAD patients.