Publications & Posters

Significance Of Blood And Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers For Alzheimer’s Disease: Sensitivity, Specificity And Potential For Clinical USE


d’Abramo C, D’Adamio L and Giliberto L.

J. Pers. Med.2020, 10(3), 116



Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia, affecting more than 5 million Americans, with steadily increasing mortality and incredible socio-economic burden. Not only have therapeutic efforts so far failed to reach significant efficacy, but the real pathogenesis of the disease is still obscure. The current theories are based on pathological findings of amyloid plaques and tau neurofibrillary tangles that accumulate in the brain parenchyma of affected patients. These findings have defined, together with the extensive neurodegeneration, the diagnostic criteria of the disease. The ability to detect changes in the levels of amyloid and tau in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) first, and more recently in blood, has allowed us to use these biomarkers for the specific in-vivo diagnosis of AD in humans. Furthermore, other pathological elements of AD, such as the loss of neurons, inflammation and metabolic derangement, have translated to the definition of other CSF and blood biomarkers, which are not specific of the disease but, when combined with amyloid and tau, correlate with the progression from mild cognitive impairment to AD dementia, or identify patients who will develop AD pathology. In this review, we discuss the role of current and hypothetical biomarkers of Alzheimer’s disease, their specificity, and the caveats of current high-sensitivity platforms for their peripheral detection