N-cadherin inhibitor creates a microenvironment that protect TILs from immune checkpoints and Treg cells
Journal for the Immunotherapy of Cancer | March 9, 2021
Sun Y, Jing J, Xu H, Xu L, Hu H, Tang C, Liu S, Wei Q, Duan R, Guo J and Yang L
J Immunother Cancer. 2021 Mar;9(3):e002138
Background: Few patients with prostate cancer benefit from current immunotherapies. Therefore, we aimed to explore new strategies to change this paradigm.
Methods: Human tissues, cell lines and in vivo experiments were used to determine whether and how N-cadherin impacts the production of programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) and indole amine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO-1) and whether N-cadherin can increase the production of effector (e)Treg cells. Then, we used PC3-bearing humanized non-obese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency IL2Rγnull (hNSG) mice with an intravenous injection of human CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells into the tail vein to evaluate whether the N-cadherin antagonist N-Ac-CHAVC-NH2 (designated ADH-1) could improve the therapeutic effect of tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL)-related treatment.
Results: N-cadherin dramatically upregulated the expression of PD-L1 and IDO-1 through IFN-γ (interferongamma) signaling and increasing the production of free fatty acids that could promote the generation of eTreg cells. In preclinical experiments, immune reconstitution mediated by TILs slowed tumor growth and extended the survival time; however, this effect disappeared after immune system suppression by PD-L1, IDO-1 and eTreg cells. Furthermore, ADH-1 effectively reduced immunosuppression and enhanced TIL-related therapy.