Publications & Posters

Integrating cytokines and angiogenic factors and tumour bulk with selected clinical criteria improves determination of prognosis in advanced renal cell carcinoma

Zurita AJ, Gagnon RC, Liu Y, Tran HT, Figlin RA, Hutson TE, D’Amelio AM, Jr., Sternberg CN, Pandite LN and Heymach JV.

Br J Cancer. 2017;117:478-484.




In two clinical trials of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor inhibitor pazopanib in advanced renal cell carcinoma (mRCC), we found interleukin-6 as predictive of pazopanib benefit. We evaluated the prognostic significance of candidate cytokines and angiogenic factors (CAFs) identified in that work relative to accepted clinical parameters.


Seven preselected plasma CAFs (interleukin-6, interleukin-8, osteopontin, VEGF, hepatocyte growth factor, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP-1), and E-selectin) were measured using multiplex ELISA in plasma collected pretreatment from 343 mRCC patients participating in the phase 3 registration trial of pazopanib vs placebo (NCT00334282). Tumour burden (per sum of longest diameters (SLD)) and 10 other clinical factors were also analysed for association with overall survival (OS; based on initial treatment assignment).


Osteopontin, interleukin-6, and TIMP-1 were independently associated with OS in multivariable analysis. A model combining the three CAFs and five clinical variables (including SLD) had higher prognostic accuracy than the International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database Consortium criteria (concordance-index 0.75 vs 0.67, respectively), and distinguished two groups of patients within the original intermediate risk category.


A prognostic model incorporating osteopontin, interleukin-6, TIMP-1, tumour burden, and selected clinical criteria increased prognostic accuracy for OS determination in mRCC patients