Inflammasomes in livestock and wildlife: Insights into the intersection of pathogens and natural host species.
Vrentas CE, Schaut RG, Boggiatto PM, Olsen SC, Sutterwala FS and Moayeri M
Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2018;201:49-56.
The inflammasome serves as a mechanism by which the body senses damage or danger. These multiprotein complexes form in the cytosol of myeloid, epithelial and potentially other cell types to drive caspase-1 cleavage and the secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18. Different types of inflammasomes, centered on (and named after) their cytosolic NLRs, respond to signals from bacteria, fungi, and viruses, as well as “sterile inflammatory” triggers. Despite the large body of research accumulated on rodent and human inflammasomes over the past 15 years, only recently have studies expanded to consider the role of inflammasomes in veterinary and wildlife species. Due to the key role of inflammasomes in mediating inflammatory responses observed in humans and rodents, characterization of the similarities and differences between humans/rodents and veterinary species is required to identify genetic and evolutionary influences on disease responses and to develop therapeutic candidates for use in veterinary inflammatory syndromes. Here, we summarize recent findings on inflammasomes in swine, cattle, dogs, bats, small ruminants, and birds. We describe current gaps in our knowledge and highlight promising areas for future research.
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