Emerging Isothermal Amplification Technologies For Microrna Biosensing: Applications To Liquid Biopsies
MOLECULAR ASPECTS OF MEDICINE
Gines G, Menezes R, Xiao W, Rondelez Y and Taly V.
Mol. Asp. Med. 2019.
The potential of microRNAs (miRNAs) as biomarker candidates in clinical practice for diagnosis, prognosis and treatment response prediction, especially in liquid biopsies, has led to a tremendous demand for techniques that can detect these molecules rapidly and accurately. Hence, numerous achievements have been reported recently in miRNA research. In this review, we discuss the challenges associated with the emerging field of miRNA detection, which are linked to the intrinsic properties of miRNAs, advantages and drawbacks of the currently available technologies and their potential applications in clinical research. We summarize the most promising nucleic acid amplification techniques applied to the in vitro detection of miRNAs, with a particular emphasis on the state of the art for isothermal alternatives to RT-qPCR. We detail the sensitivity, specificity and quantitativity of these approaches, as well as their potential for multiplexing. We also review the different detection formats to which these chemistries have been adapted, including analog readouts such as real-time monitoring, digital counting based on single-molecule amplification in compartments, and surface-based strategies.