Publications & Posters

Early plasma biomarker dynamic profiles are associated with acute ischemic stroke outcomes

European Journal of Neurology | February 6, 2022

Correia M, Silva I, Gabriel D, Simrén J, Carneiro A, Ribeiro S, Dória HM, Varela R, Aires A, Minta K, Antunes R, Felgueiras R, Castro P, Blenow K, Magalhães R, Zetterberg H and Maia LF

European Journal of Neurology. 2022

This study was performed using the Quanterix HD-1 Analyzer.



Early outcome prediction after acute ischemic stroke (AIS) might be improved with blood-based biomarkers. We investigated whether the longitudinal profile of a multi-marker panel could predict the outcome of successfully recanalized AIS patients.


We used ultrasensitive single-molecule array (Simoa) to measure glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), neurofilament light chain (NfL), total-tau (t-tau) and ELISA for brevican in a prospective study of AIS patients with anterior circulation large vessel occlusion successfully submitted to thrombectomy. Plasma was obtained at admission, upon treatment, 24 h and 72 h after treatment. Clinical and neuroimaging outcomes were assessed independently.


Thirty-five patients (64.8%) had good early clinical or neuroimaging outcome. Baseline biomarker levels did not distinguish between outcomes. However, longitudinal intra-individual biomarker changes followed different dynamic profiles with time and according to outcome. GFAP levels exhibited an early and prominent increase between admission and just after treatment. NfL increase was less pronounced between admission and up to 24 h. T-tau increased between treatment and 24 h. Interestingly, GFAP rate-of-change (pg/ml/h) between admission and immediately after recanalization had a good discriminative capacity between clinical outcomes (AUC = 0.88, p < 0.001), which was higher than admission CT-ASPECTS (AUC = 0.75, p < 0.01). T-tau rate-of-change provided moderate discriminative capacity (AUC = 0.71, p < 0.05). Moreover, in AIS patients with admission CT-ASPECTS <9 both GFAP and NfL rate-of-change were good outcome predictors (AUC = 0.82 and 0.77, p < 0.05).


Early GFAP, t-tau and NfL rate-of-change in plasma can predict AIS clinical and neuroimaging outcome after successful recanalization. Such dynamic measures match and anticipate neuroimaging predictive capacity, potentially improving AIS patient stratification for treatment, and targeting individualized stroke care.