Diagnostic Utility Of Selected Serum Dementia Biomarkers: Amyloid Β-40, Amyloid Β-42, Tau Protein, And Ykl-40: A Review
JOURNAL OF CLINICAL MEDICINE
Wilczyńska K and Waszkiewicz N
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(11), 3452
Introduction: Dementia is a group of disorders that causes dysfunctions in human cognitive and operating functions. Currently, it is not possible to conduct a fast, low-invasive dementia diagnostic process with the use of peripheral blood biomarkers, however, there is a great deal of research in progress covering this subject. Research on dementia biomarkers in serum validates anticipated health and economic benefits from early screening tests. Biomarkers are also essential for improving the process of developing new drugs. Methods: The result analysis, of current studies on selected biomarker concentrations (Aβ40, Aβ42, t-tau, and YKL-40) and their combination in the serum of patients with dementia and mild cognitive disorders, involved a search for papers available in Medline, PubMed, and Web of Science databases published from 2000 to 2020. Results: The results of conducted cross-sectional studies comparing Aβ40, Aβ42, and Aβ42/Aβ40 among people with cognitive disorders and a control group are incoherent. Most of the analyzed papers showed an increase in t-tau concentration in diagnosed Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients’ serum, whereas results of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) groups did not differ from the control groups. In several papers on the concentration of YKL-40 and t-tau/Aβ42 ratio, the results were promising. To date, several studies have only covered the field of biomarker concentrations in dementia disorders other than AD. Conclusions: Insufficient amyloid marker test repeatability may result either from imperfection of the used laboratorial techniques or inadequate selection of control groups with their comorbidities. On the basis of current knowledge, t-tau, t-tau/Aβ42, and YKL-40 seem to be promising candidates as biomarkers of cognitive disorders in serum. YKL-40 seems to be a more useful biomarker in early MCI diagnostics, whereas t-tau can be used as a marker of progress of prodromal states in mild AD. Due to the insignificant number of studies conducted to date among patients with dementia disorders other than AD, it is not possible to make a sound assessment of their usefulness in dementia differential diagnostics.