Body Fluid Biomarkers for Alzheimer’s Disease-An Up-To-Date Overview.
BIOMEDICINES | OCTOBER 15, 2020
Bălașa AF, Chircov C and Grumezescu AM
Biomedicines 2020, 8(10), 421
Neurodegeneration is a highly complex process which is associated with a variety of molecular mechanisms related to ageing. Among neurodegenerative disorders, Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common, affecting more than 45 million individuals. The underlying mechanisms involve amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) deposition, which will subsequently lead to oxidative stress, chronic neuroinflammation, neuron dysfunction, and neurodegeneration. The current diagnosis methods are still limited in regard to the possibility of the accurate and early detection of the diseases. Therefore, research has shifted towards the identification of novel biomarkers and matrices as biomarker sources, beyond amyloid-β and tau protein levels within the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), that could improve AD diagnosis. In this context, the aim of this paper is to provide an overview of both conventional and novel biomarkers for AD found within body fluids, including CSF, blood, saliva, urine, tears, and olfactory fluids.
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