Blood-based biomarkers for Alzheimer’s disease – An update.
JOURNAL OF NEUROSCIENCE METHODS | OCTOBER 25, 2018
Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are in clinical use in many parts of the world and show good to excellent diagnostic accuracy in regards to identifying cerebral amyloid β (Aβ) and tau pathology irrespective of the clinical stage of the disease. However, CSF sampling is more difficult than a blood draw and a procedure only rarely performed by general practitioners. Since AD is such a common disease and since intense research on novel treatments that hopefully will be directed against underlying pathologies is moving forward, it would be excellent if the CSF tests for AD could be transformed into blood tests, as well as if novel blood biomarkers could be discovered. Brain-derived molecules are, however, present at much lower concentrations in blood than in CSF, which poses an analytical challenge. There are also additional issues with blood as a biofluid in which to measure biomarkers for central nervous system disease. Nevertheless, the past few years have seen an enormous development in the field of ultrasensitive measurement techniques. There is also much better availability of deeply phenotyped clinical cohorts for biomarker discovery and validation. This review gives an updated account of the current state of research on blood biomarkers for AD and related neurodegenerative dementias with special emphasis on findings that have been replicated by more than one research group.