Biomarkers and Their Implications in Alzheimer’s Disease: A Literature Review
Exploratory Research and Hypothesis in Medicine | May 18, 2021
Marcucci V and Kleiman J
Exploratory Research and Hypothesis in Medicine 2021
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder with a complex pathology that is not completely understood. Over time, AD reduces one’s cortical and subcortical functioning. The incidence and prevalence of AD is projected to increase as the worldwide population continues to grow older. While advances in the field of neurology and medicine continue to improve, there are presently no novel therapeutic agents to prevent, halt, or cure patients suffering from AD. The utilization of biomarkers that aid the diagnostic algorithm, drug response monitoring and disease progression that add to further our understanding of the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative disease is vastly expanding. The significance of amyloid plaque deposition, tau pathology, and neurofibrillary tangle accumulation have been well-studied in the realm of neurodegenerative diseases for decades and are proposed biomarkers. However, it has been difficult to stratify physiological biomarkers of blood/plasma, cerebrospinal fluid, saliva/urine/hair/nail for diagnostic utility and overall understanding in the pathogenesis of neurodegeneration. We aim to review the most relevant, up-to-date biomarkers and their implications in AD.
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