Biomarkers in Alzheimer’s disease
ADVANCES IN LABORATORY MEDICINE | NOVEMBER 23, 2020
Janeiro MH, Ardanaz CG, Sola-Sevilla N, Dong J, Cortés-Erice M, Solas M, Puerta E and Ramírez MJ.
Adv Lab Med. 2020:20200090
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease. AD is the main cause of dementia worldwide and aging is the main risk factor for developing the illness. AD classical diagnostic criteria rely on clinical data. However, the development of a biological definition of AD using biomarkers that reflect the underling neuropathology is needed.
The aim of this review is to describe the main outcomes when measuring classical and novel biomarkers in biological fluids or neuroimaging.
Nowadays, there are three classical biomarkers for the diagnosis of AD: Aβ42, t-Tau and p-Tau. The diagnostic use of cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers is limited due to invasive collection by lumbar puncture with potential side effects. Plasma/serum measurements are the gold standard in clinics, because they are minimally invasive and, in consequence, easily collected and processed. The two main proteins implicated in the pathological process, Aβ and Tau, can be visualized using neuroimaging techniques, such as positron emission tomography.
As it is currently accepted that AD starts decades before clinical symptoms could be diagnosed, the opportunity to detect biological alterations prior to clinical symptoms would allow early diagnosis or even perhaps change treatment possibilities.