Publications & Posters

An ultrasensitive planar array p24 Gag ELISA to detect HIV-1 in diverse biological matrixes

Scientific Reports | December 8, 2021

Levinger C, Howard J, Cheng J, Tang P, Joshi A, Catalfamo M and Bosque A

Scientific Reports. 2021;11:23682

This study was performed using Simoa Homebrew assay(s).


Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) persistence in the presence of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has halted the development of curative strategies. Measuring HIV persistence is complex due to the low frequency of cells containing virus in vivo. Most of the commercially available assays to date measure nucleic acid. These assays have the advantage of being highly sensitive and allow for the analysis of sequence diversity, intactness of the HIV genome or evaluation of diverse RNA species. However, these assays are limited in evaluating translational competent viral reservoirs. In here, we developed an ultrasensitive p24 ELISA that uses the Simoa planar array technology that can detect HIV-1 virions and HIV-1 infected cells with limit of detection similar to nucleic acid assays. Furthermore, the assay is optimized to measure very low levels of p24 in different biological fluids without a major loss of sensitivity or reproducibility. Our results demonstrate that the ‘homebrew’ planar p24 ELISA immunoassay is a broadly applicable new tool to evaluate HIV persistence in diverse biological fluids and cells.