A phase 1b trial of the CXCR4 inhibitor mavorixafor and nivolumab in advanced renal cell carcinoma patients with no prior response to nivolumab monotherapy
Investigational New Drugs | January 28, 2021
Choueiri TK, Atkins MB, Rose TL, Alter RS, Ju Y, Niland K, Wang Y, Arbeit R, Parasuraman S, Gan L and McDermott DF
Invest New Drugs (2021)
Background The CXCR4 chemokine receptor promotes tumor survival through mechanisms that include suppressing antitumor immune responses. Mavorixafor (X4P-001) is an oral, selective, allosteric CXCR4 inhibitor that decreases the recruitment of immunosuppressive cells into the tumor microenvironment and increases activated cytotoxic Tcell infiltration. Methods Patients with metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) unresponsive to nivolumab monotherapy received oral mavorixafor 400 mg daily plus 240 mg intravenous nivolumab every 2 weeks. Results Nine patients were enrolled, median age 65 years. At baseline 4 had progressive disease (PD) and 5 had stable disease (SD). One of 5 patients with SD at study entry on prior nivolumab monotherapy had a partial response (PR) on combination treatment; all 4 patients with PD at study entry had a best response of SD with the combination treatment (median duration: 6.7 months; range: 3.7–14.7). Four patients discontinued therapy due to treatment-related adverse events (AEs). Grade ≥ 3 drug-related AEs were elevated alanine and aspartate aminotransferase (2 patients each); and autoimmune hepatitis, chronic kidney disease, increased lipase, maculopapular rash, and mucosal inflammation (1 patient each). A robust increase in levels of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 9 CXCL9 on mavorixafor appeared to correlate with clinical benefit. Conclusions The CXCR4 inhibition mediated by mavorixafor, in combination with PD-1 blockade to enhance antitumor immune responses in patients unresponsive to checkpoint inhibitor monotherapy, is worthy of further study. Mavorixafor and nivolumab combination therapy in patients with advanced ccRCC demonstrated potential antitumor activity and a manageable safety profile.