Tumor biomarkers act as important contextual cues or signals of cancer status. “If there are T cells infiltrating your cancer, you are going to do better than if you don’t have them. For almost every cancer, immune infiltrates are prognostic markers for better overall outcome,” says Bernard A. Fox, Ph.D., CEO of UbiVac and Harder Chair for Cancer Research, Earle A. Chiles Research Institute. Predictive biomarkers are indicators of whether a patient should get a specific therapy. The use of such biomarkers has been given various names, notes Robert Anders, M.D., Ph.D., associate professor of pathology and assistant professor of oncology at Johns Hopkins University. These names include personalized medicine or individualized medicine.