Immune response biomarkers in human and veterinary research

Comparative immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases
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Llibre A and Duffy D.

Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 2018 Aug;59:57-62

DOI: doi: 10.1016/j.cimid.2018.09.008.

ABSTRACT

Biomarkers are increasingly utilised in biological research and clinical practice for diagnosis of disease, monitoring of therapeutic prognosis, or as end points in clinical studies. Cytokines are small molecules that orchestrate immune responses and as such have great potential as biomarkers for both human and veterinary fields. Given the ease of sampling in the blood, and their high prevalence in clinical applications we will focus on protein detection as an area for biomarker discovery. This is facilitated by new technological developments such as digital ELISA that have led to significant increases in sensitivity. Two highly relevant examples include type I interferons, namely IFNα, that is now directly quantifiable by digital ELISA from biological samples. The application of this approach to the study of the unique bat interferon response may reveal novel findings with applications in both human and veterinary research. As a second example we will describe the use of CXCL10 as a disease biomarker in Tuberculosis, highlighting findings from human and mouse studies that should be considered in veterinary research. In summary, we describe how cytokines may be applied as novel biomarkers and illustrate two key examples where human and veterinary research may complement each other in line with the One Health objectives.