Early levels of GFAP and NF-L in predicting the outcome of mild TBI.

Journal of Neurotrauma

Hossain I, Mohammadian M, Takala RS, Tenovuo O, Lagerstedt L, Ala-Seppala HM, Frantzen J, Van Gils M, Hutchinson PJ, Katila AJ, Maanpaa HR, Menon D, Newcombe V, Tallus J, Hrusovsky K, Wilson D, Blennow K, Sanchez JC, Zetterberg H and Posti JP

J Neurotrauma. 2018 Nov 29

DOI: 10.1089/neu.2018.5952


To correlate the early levels of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and neurofilament light protein (NF-L) with outcome in patients with mildtraumatic brain injury (mTBI). 107 patients with mTBI [Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) ≥13] having the blood samples for GFAP and NF-Lavailable within 24 hrs from arrival were included. Patients with mTBI were divided into computed tomography (CT)-positive and CT-negative groups. Glasgow Outcome Scale extended (GOSE) was used to assess the outcome. Outcomes were defined as complete (GOSE 8) vs. incomplete (GOSE <8), and favorable (GOSE 5-8) vs. unfavorable (GOSE 1-4). GFAP and NF-L concentrations in blood were measured using ultrasensitive single molecule array technology. Patients with incomplete recovery had significantly higher levels of NF-L compared to those with complete recovery (p=0.005). The levels of GFAP and NF-L were significantly higher in patients with unfavorable outcome than in patients with favorable outcome (p=0.002 for GFAP and p <0.001 for NF-L). For predicting favorable outcome, the area under the ROC curve for GFAP and NF-L was 0.755 and 0.826, respectively. In a multivariate logistic regression model, the level of NF-L was still a significant predictor for complete recovery (OR=1.008, 95%CI, 1.000-1.016). Moreover, the level of NF-L was a significant predictor for complete recovery in CT-positive patients (OR=1.009, 95%CI, 1.001-1.016). The early levels of GFAP and NF-L are significantly correlated with the outcome in patients with mTBI. The level of NF-L within 24 hrs from arrival has a significant predictive value in mTBI also in a multivariate model.