Advances in Diagnostic Testing that Impact Infection Prevention and Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs

Current Infectious Disease Reports
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Sullivan KV

Curr Infect Dis Rep. 2019 May 1;21(6):20.

DOI: 10.1007/s11908-019-0676-7.

 

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW:

The primary purpose of this review is to provide a summary of new and emerging laboratory technologies and testingplatforms that impact infection prevention and antimicrobial stewardship programs. This review also summarizes available data describing the clinical impact of implementing these new technologies.

RECENT FINDINGS:

While there is ample evidence that rapid organism identification technologies for positive blood cultures can ameliorate antimicrobial utilization, an assay that also provides expedited antimicrobial susceptibility testing results is now available and its clinical impact is under investigation. For C. difficile infection diagnosis, data related to performance and impact of "ultrasensitive" toxin assays is emerging in the literature although their role in C. difficile infection diagnosis remains unclear. For hospital-acquired pneumonia, a variety of rapid, automated, multiplexed, "pneumonia" panels have become commercially available and may impact surveillance definitions for ventilator-associated events. Finally, recent FDA clearance of various biochemical and molecular carbapenemase detection tests will facilitate rapid characterization of carbapenem-resistant organisms. Innovations in infectious diseases diagnostics have been making swift strides, broadening diagnostic scope; increasing accuracy and sensitivity; and reducing turnaround time. Many of these innovations directly impactinfection prevention and antimicrobial stewardship operations. Close collaboration between infection control, antimicrobial stewardship, and the microbiology laboratory is necessary to ensure that new tests improve patient outcomes.