Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a 27KDa signaling protein produced by cells that stimulates vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. The VEGF family includes VEGF-A (VEGF), VEGF-B, PlGF, VEGF-C and VEGF-D. VEGF is a heparin binding protein and exists as a disulfide linked homo-dimer. It has at least 6 isoforms produced by alternative splicing. VEGF induces endothelial cell proliferation, promotes cell migration, inhibits apoptosis, and induces permeabilization of blood vessels. Though VEGF acts primarily on endothelial cells, it also binds to receptors on HSCs, monocytes, osteoblasts and neuronal cells. VEGF is also involved in vasodilation through induction of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and the subsequent increase in nitric oxide production. When VEGF is over-expressed, it can contribute to disease; cancers that can express VEGF are able to grow and metastasize.