TFNα - Human tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) is a homotrimeric transmembrane protein that functions as a proinflammatory cytokine. It is produced mainly by macrophages but also by a variety of other cell types, including monocytes, neutrophils, and T-cells. The involvement of TNFα in several signal transduction pathways links the protein to such diverse functions as acute inflammation, apoptosis, septic shock, cellular proliferation, and differentiation. Human TNFα is a non-glycosylated protein of 157 amino acids, with a molecular weight of approximately 17,000 daltons. The clinical relevance of TNFα stems from its association with numerous disease states including rheumatoid arthritis, cancer, cachexia, and Crohn’s disease.
ITAC - Interferon-inducible T-cell alpha chemoattractant (ITAC), also known as CXCL11 (C-X-C motif chemokine 11), is a protein found in several organs including the pancreas, liver, thymus, spleen, and lung. ITAC is a cytokine stimulated by IFNβ and IFNγ to induce chemotaxis in activated T cells. ITAC has been linked with heart failure and central nervous system diseases.
MCP-1 - Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, also called chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2, CCL2) is a chemokine that recruits monocytes, memory T cells, and dendritic cells to the sites of inflammation produced by either tissue injury or infection. MCP-1 is implicated in pathogeneses of several diseases characterized by monocytic infiltrates, such as psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis and atherosclerosis. MCP-1 is also involved in the neuroinflammatory processes in various CNS diseases characterized by neuronal degeneration, including Alzheimer's disease and traumatic brain injury.
MIP-3β - MIP-3β (macrophage inflammatory protein-3-beta ), also known as (Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 19 (CCL19) and EBI1 ligand chemokine (ELC) is a small cytokine belonging to the CC chemokine family. It is expressed at high levels in the lymph nodes, thymus and appendix, and elicits its effects on its target cells by binding to the chemokine receptor chemokine receptor CCR7. MIP-3β and plays a role not only in inflammatory and immunological responses but also in normal lymphocyte recirculation, migration and homing.