ICAM-1 Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1; also known as CD54) is a 90 kDa member of the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily and plays a central role in leukocyte trafficking, activation of lymphocytes, and numerous additional immune functions. ICAM-1 is constitutively expressed on many immune, endothelial and epithelial cell types, and its expression is upregulated in inflammatory conditions, specifically by TNF-α, IL-1β, IFN-γ and other cytokines. By interacting with lymphocyte function associated molecule (LFA)-1 and others, ICAM-1 acts as a leukocyte adhesion molecule. ICAM-1 is highly expressed in inflammatory conditions, chronic diseases and a number of malignancies.
MPO Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a peroxidase enzyme that in humans is most abundantly expressed in neutrophil granulocytes. In the presence of hydrogen peroxide and halides, MPO catalyzes the formation of reactive oxygen intermediates. MPO has been demonstrated to be a local mediator of tissue damage and the resulting inflammation in various inflammatory diseases, and may be important therapeutic target for the treatment of inflammatory conditions. Measurement of MPO in plasma may contribute to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk stratification.
NGAL Neutrophil gelatinase-associated Lipocalin (NGAL), also called Lipocalin-2, is expressed in neutrophils and normally produced at low levels by epithelial cells, kidney tubular cells and in case of injury or inflammation by hepatocytes. Increased NGAL expression is seen in cases of damage of epithelial cells of the kidneys, large intestine, liver and lungs. NGAL is is one of the most widely studied biomarkers for Acute Kidney Injury, and NGAL formation is induced in many human tumors and is a predictor of poor prognosis.
RANTES Regulation on Activation Normal T-cell Expressed and Secreted (RANTES), also known as CCL5, is a chemotactic cytokine produced by macrophages, epithelial cells, platelets, megakaryoblasts, T lymphocytes and eosinophils. RANTES signals through CCR1, CCR3 and CCR5 receptors and recruits T cells, macrophages, eosinophils and basophils to sites of inflammation. In addition, it stimulates histamine secretion by mast cells, IgE and IgG production by lymphocytes, increases CD80 expression on antigen-presenting cells, and induces activation and proliferation of NK cells.
TIMP-1 Tissue Inhibitor of metalloproteinases -1 (TIMP-1) is a widely expressed glycoprotein which regulates matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and disintegrin-metalloproteinases (ADAMs and ADAMTSs). In addition to its inhibitory role against most of the known MMPs, the encoded protein is able to promote cell proliferation in a wide range of cell types, and may also have an anti-apoptotic function. TIMP-1 is thought to play a significant role in cancer development; increased expression of TIMP-1 has been found to be associated with poor prognosis for laryngeal carcinoma and melanoma.
VCAM-1 Vascular Cellular Adhesion Molecule 1 (VCAM-1) also known as CD106 is a 110 kDa transmembrane glycoprotein expressed exclusively on cytokine-activated vascular endothelium. VCAM-1 protein mediates the adhesion of lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils to vascular endothelium, and also functions in leukocyte-endothelial cell signal transduction. VCAM-1 has been shown to play an important role in the development of atherosclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis, and soluble VCAM-1 is a useful biomarker for many inflammatory diseases.